Buriden develops the metaphor of Buriden's Ass. Give a rational donkey two equally large piles of straw and place him the same distance from both of them, and he will starve to death because he can't choose which one to go to first.
[According to the fifth and eighth Doctors in The Eight Doctors (p. 172) this was in the 14th Century. Buriden lived 1300-1358.]
Rudolf de Nuremberg develops a water-powered wire-drawing method.
[The Masque of Mandragora.]
est. 14th Century
A plague victim was taken to the early 21st Century through the Cardiff rift.
[As seen in End of Days. It's not clear when she came from, but Owen suspects she has the black death.]
The Dæmons inspire the Renaissance.
[Or so the Doctor claims in The Dæmons.]
Chaucer presents the Doctor with a signed copy of his The Doctour of Science's Tale.
[This is mentioned and dated in Cat's Cradle: Time's Crucible (p. 43). Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales from 1386 - 1400.]
r. 13th January 1394 AD
The Xaranti instigate a stellar explosion that destroys Zygor, homeworld of their enemies the Zygons. The Zygons become a nomadic race searching the galaxy for new worlds to colonise.
[According to Tuval in The Bodysnatchers (p. 155) this was five centuries before 1894.]
est. 1400 AD
The arrival of four aliens on the planet Skaro prompts the pacifist Thals to attack the Dalek city, trapping the Daleks inside it.
[In The Dalek Invasion of Earth, the Doctor speculates that these events are a million years in the future, though this doesn't fit with any other evidence. In Planet of the Daleks, they are said to be generations ago (and so a considerable time before 2540). In War of the Daleks, this was millennia ago (p. 73), and these were the first Daleks to emerge since Genesis of the Daleks (p.74). This last statement means that this story must be set a long time before The Empire of Glass, when the Daleks are a sufficiently powerful force to be invited to the Armageddon Convention of 1609 (p.134). Within these limits, my date is completely arbitrary.]
h. 25th October 1415 AD
The Reign Makers (Short Trips: Indefinable Magic)
The Doctor seeds the clouds to ensure that it rains at the Battle of Agincourt, as history recorded.
[The date is historical. The Doctor mentions having been at Agincourt in The Masque of Mandragora and Shada (4th Doctor).]
c. 1430 AD
An Aztec priest called Yexata dies and his body is sealed in a tomb.
[The date is Barbara's estimate in The Aztecs (ep. 1).]
r. 1450 AD
The remainder of the Daleks emerge from their confinement, forcing the Thals to leave Skaro.
[According to the Doctor in War of the Daleks (p. 74). This must be sufficiently long after The Daleks for the Thals to understand and replicate some Dalek technology. It must also be sufficiently before The Empire of Glass (1609) for the Daleks to become enough of a space power to be invited to the Armageddon Convention and noted as a power by the delegates. I arbitrarily suggest this is 50 years after The Daleks, and that the Daleks begin building a space empire very shortly afterwards.]
The fifth Doctor and Peri visit the remote village of Sair, whose inhabitants are into demonology.
[It's the fifteenth century (p.216).]
The earliest parts of Fulbright Hall, Dartmoor were built by William Fulbright.
[In the 15th Century, according to Evolution (p.7-8).]
Leonardo Da Vinci is born.
[The year is given by the tour guide in City of Death (ep.1).]
h. 29th May 1453 AD
Constantinople is renamed Istanbul.
[Shadowmind (p. 32). No date is given other than the 15th century, so we're using the historical date.]
c. 1454 AD
One of Scaroth's segments acquires a Gutenberg Bible and a Ming vase.
[City of Death. Gutenberg bibles were printed between 1453 and 1455 and the Ming dynasty ruled from 1368 to 1644, so these were likely acquired by the same segment.]
c. 1454 AD
Four pale-skinned people come out of the tomb of Yexata. One of them is proclaimed to be the divine reincarnation of Yexata, the others are her handmaiden and two male servants. One of the men becomes commander of the army whilst the other retires to the Garden of Peace. The goddess objects to the practice of human sacrifice, and persuades the High Priest of Knowledge to question the practice, enough to go into the wilderness. The goddess disappeared at the solar eclipse, leaving the High Priest of Sacrifice in control of the religious order.
[There is little indication how long after Yexata's death (dated c. 1430) this occurs. Ixta's father built the tomb and Ixta appears to be in his 20s, with Cameca having been close to Ixta's father, but this doesn't really allow us to pin down the date. In The Left-Handed Hummingbird (p.66), Benny guesses this happened during the drought of 1454, which tallies with this information.]
c. 1470 AD
The earliest parts of Chase Mansion were built during the Wars of the Roses.
[The Seeds of Doom. The Wars of the Roses happened between 1455 and 1485.]
The parish of Saint James in what would later become Cardiff wall themselves in when they hear about a plague. The priest of Saint Mary's [presumably the next parish along] resurrects a girl with the help of a mysterious glove. This causes a creature that the villagers identify as Death to manifest. It kills twelve people, claiming that a thirteenth death would roam the Earth forever. It was stopped by the resurrected girl, whose name was Faith. This incident produced the earliest recorded image of the Grim Reaper as a representation of death. There's a legend that St Mary's church was built on top of the glove. In fact, the glove was simply stored in a box within the church, where it would remain until the early 21st Century.
[This is the legend uncovered by Torchwood in Dead Man Walking. Gwen dates the incident to the 15th century and Ianto dates it to 1479. There's no explanation of why the story is in an article about the Black Death (14th century), which is where Gwen found it.]
Johann Faust of Wittenberg was born.
[His reprise gives the year in Managra (p.193).]
The Left-Handed Hummingbird
In Tenochtitlan, the Aztec god Huitzilopochtli was demanding 20,000 sacrifices in one day after years of steady increase. These sacrifices, together with the Exxilon artefact known as the Xiuhcoatl, allowed a psychic called Huitzilin to spend the subsequent centuries visiting violent moments in history and making them worse. Huitzilin would later become known as the Blue.
[The year is established in a caption (p.39).]
r. Spring 1489 AD
The Doctor may have visited China at this time.
[The Doctor claims that he hasn't been in China for four hundred years in The Talons of Weng-Chiang (ep. 1).]
r. 16th September 1491 AD
The Doctor had a steely encounter with Tomas de Torqemada in Toledo.
[The Doctor mentions this in Managra, (p. 52, 56), which places it seven years before Torquemada's death. The fact that he recognises Torquemada's face makes it unlikely this is just a name-drop. This is likely the same trip remembered by Steven in The Empire of Glass (p. 60), where the TARDIS crew spent a few days in Toledo during the time of Torquemada.]
The Masque of Mandragora
In the Italian Dukedom of San Marino, the cult of Demnos, who were thought to have died out in the 3rd century, attempt to kill the Duke. They are defeated by two strangers.
[Da Vinci's patron is the Duke of Milan (so it's 1482-93). The novelisation begins by saying that it's 1492.]
Christopher Columbus "discovers" the Americas
[This is mentioned in Eye of Heaven (p.41), and The Ghosts of N-Space (p.71, novel only).]
h. 1492 AD
The Moors were finally expelled from Spain by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille. Guido, son of the Barone of San Stefano Minore, was presumed killed in the battle for Grenada.
[The Ghosts of N-Space (p.71, 138/ep.2 & 4)]
c. 1493 AD
Mortimus discusses plans for a flying machine with Leonardo Da Vinci.
[The Time Meddler. The date is when Da Vinci is first believed to have drawn plans for a flying machine. Mortimus's name was first established in No Future.]
h. 16th September 1498 AD
Torqemada dies in Avila. The Doctor was there at the time.
[The Doctor mentions this in Managra (p.52,56). Whilst this visit is not confirmed, the fact that he recognises Torquemada's face and that there is other evidence for his previous meeting with Torquemada (in The Empire of Glass) strongly suggests that this is not a name-drop. The date of his death is historical.]
est. 1500 AD
The term astronomy is coined to distinguish scientific study of the stars from the interminable mumbo-jumbo of astrology
[This is mentioned in Short Trips: Zodiac (p.1), and said to be "the second millennium of the Christian Era." The date is arbitrary. In reality the word astronomy in English predates astrology by a couple of centuries. The two terms diverged in meaning between the late 1400s and the late 1600s.]
Leonardo Da Vinci finishes the original Mona Lisa.
[The year is given by both the Doctor and a TV news reporter City of Death (ep.3)]
The Ghosts of N-Space
Two alchemists visited the Barone of San Stefano Minore. One of these alchemists, the Doctor, was thrown into the dungeons for necromancy, but he escaped. The other, Maximilian Vilmio, was walled up alive whilst attempting to perform a magical ceremony.
[The date is given. (p.220 / ep.5)]
City of Death
Count Tancredi, the ninth splinter of Scaroth, forces Da Vinci to paint 6 copies of the Mona Lisa. The copies are, however, ruined by the fourth Doctor, who adds a message to the canvas labelling them as fakes.
[Tancredi asks the Doctor what he is doing in 1505 (ep.3).]
Leonardo da Vinci dies
[The tour guide gives the year in City of Death (ep.1). The historical date was 2nd May.]
c. 1520 AD
Hernando Cortéz lands in the Americas with 600 Spaniards. His arrival co-incides with the Aztec year of One Reed, when the god Quetzalcoatl was prophesied to return. His actions almost wipe out the Aztecs.
[Barbara mentions his arrival in The Aztecs, giving the year 1520. Benny gives more details, and the year 1519, in The Left-Handed Hummingbird (p.64,66). In reality, he arrived in 1519, and his conquest happened between 1519 and 1520.]
c. 1525 AD
The First Doctor and Susan meet Henry VIII, who puts them in the Tower of London after the Doctor throws a parson's nose at him. This allows them to get back to the TARDIS.
[The Doctor mentions this in The Sensorites (ep.1). Since Susan is in this scene, we can probably assume it isn't simply a name-drop. The date is not specified, but Henry reigned from 1509 to 1547.]
h. 19th May 1536 AD
Anne Boleyn is beheaded. She requests that it be done by sword rather than axe.
[According to a plaque in The Dying Days (p.265).]
c. 1538 AD
Henry VIII orders the dissolution of a large number of religious houses. One victim is the Convent of the Little Sisters of St. Gudula.
[According to Professor Rumford in The Stones of Blood (ep.2). The dissolution of the monasteries took place between 1536 and 1541.]
Johann Faust of Wittenberg dies.
[His reprise gives the year in Managra (p.193).]
A shooting star falls to earth near the Torchwood estate in Scotland. It contains a lupine wavelength haemoveriform (alien werewolf) which will infect a local human.
[The year is recorded in a book seen in Tooth and Claw, which also says that this is during the reign of James V (1513-1542).]
h. 25th August 1540 AD
Katherine Grey is born.
[She is 12 years old when she and Jane are married off in The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2). As this is consistent with her historical birth date, we have gone with that.]
c. 1543 AD
Copernicus is dismissed by his blinkered scientific contemporaries.
[According to Miss Rivers in The Lost Boy (ep. 1). In reality. Copernicus's theories only became controversial after his death in 1543.]
c. Late 16th Century
Priests from around the country hid from persecution in Cranleigh Hall.
[This is mentioned by Lady Craneleigh in Black Orchid (ep. 2), but no date is given. Priestholes were most widely used during the reign of Elizabeth I and James I/VI.]
r. 7th May 1553 AD
The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)
The Duke of Northumberland catches three strangers in Bradgate as Jane Grey shoots a wolf. Jane identifies one of them as her tutor, Doctor Samuel Smythe. During these events, an alien called the Vrij possesses the Duke.
[This is a few weeks before Jane's wedding (p.200) and two months before Edward dies (p.205). We've calculated from the latter.]
h. 25th May 1553 AD
The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)
Lady Jane Grey is forced to marry Gilford, son of the Duke of Northumberland. During the ceremony she refuses to say her vows, before suddenly agreeing. At the same ceremony Jane's two sisters are also married. Following this, her tutor is given a small townhouse in the parish of St Mary;s Islington and a lump sum of money.
[We have used the historical date, which is not contradicted anywhere in the story. It's a few weeks since the TARDIS arrived (p.200).]
7th July 1553 AD
The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)
The day after King Edward dies rumours of all sorts of supernatural events begin to circulate.
[Barbara calculates that it's 7th July (p.205). It's also about two months after they arrived.]
h. 10th July 1553 AD
The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)
Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England at the Tower of London. Shortly afterwards, there is a confrontation between Jane and the Duke of Northumberland when Jane refuses to say that her husband is the king.
[No date is given, so we've gone with history.]
h. 19th July 1553 AD
The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)
After a few days where the Vrij inside the Duke of Northumberland creates more support for Jane Grey than was recorded in the history books it is removed by the Doctor. Later that day soldiers loyal to Mary arrest Jane Grey.
[No date is stated, so we've gone with history.]
c. 1554 AD
Madame Nostradamus knits an absurdly long scarf for the Doctor.
[Or so the Doctor claims in The Ark in Space. Nostradamus lived from 1503-1566 and published his prophecies in 1555. His marriage lasted between 1531-1534, and his second marriage was in 1547. Arbitrarily dated the year before Nostradamus's book.]
r. 19th October 1554 AD
The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)
Jane Grey is executed. She asks the crowd to join her in prayer, and after being blindfolded she stumbles. An elderly onlooker emerges from the crowd and helps her guide her hands to the block before disappearing.
[This is fifteen months after her arrest (p.226). Historically her execution was 12th February 1554, which was only seven months later.]
h. 15th January 1559 AD
The Doctor attends Elizabeth I's coronation. The banquet is spoiled when Essex throws drumsticks around.
[He claims to have been there in The Curse of Peladon (ep.4), Cat's Cradle: Witch Mark, and Nightshade. Essex's behaviour is from Witch Mark.]
h. April 1564 AD
William Shakespeare is born.
[He is 49 in the prologue to Managra (p.2, set 29th June 1613). Since his real birth was around April 1564 (he was christened on 26th April) and is consistent with this, we have opted to use the historical date.]
Boscombe Hall was built on the site of the Convent of the Little Sisters of St Gudula.
[According to Professor Rumford in The Stones of Blood (ep. 2). The house is never actually named onscreen.]
h. August 1572 AD
In Paris the authorities execute the staunchly catholic Abbot of Amboise for failure to assassinate the prominent Huguenot Admiral de Coligny. Soon afterwards, the Medicis launch a full scale massacre of the Huguenots. It is possible that servant girl Anne Chaplet survives the massacre.
[Anne says it is 1572 (ep. 4). Matching up with real-world history puts this between 9th & 23rd August.]
The seventh Doctor and Ace visit Rome in search of the Timewyrm.
[According to Timewyrm: Revelation (p. 13).]
c. 1584 AD
Elizabeth I's Astrologer John Dee, his assistant Edward Kelly, and their wives meet King of Poland Stephen Bathory whilst on a tour of Europe.
[Byron and Sarah discuss this in Managra (p.139). Sarah says it was the 1580s. Bathory died in 1586, so we've dated this a couple of years before then.]
Sir Bothwell Chase completes the west wing of Chase Mansion just before his execution.
[According to Harrison Chase in The Seeds of Doom (ep. 3).]
July 1587 AD
The Empire of Glass (Prologue)
The Greld attack the Roanoake colony in America. They implant sections of a meta-cobalt bomb and hypnotic controllers into the colonists.
[The date is given in a heading on page 1.]
h. 1588 AD
The Doctor met Francis Drake before he left to face the Spanish Armada. He lets Drake win the game of bowls so he can get off quickly.
[The Doctor mentions this In Four to Doomsday (ep.2). More details are given in Birthright (p.62-63), where the Doctor (apparently the seventh) and Queen Elizabeth recall events. It's possible that the first mention was merely a name-drop.]
John Dee returns to England from his European tour. Edward Kelley continues touring, earning a living as a scryer and an alchemist.
[According to the Doctor in Managra (p.140).]
c. 1590 AD
A girl at a party makes a mistake with Captain Jack.
[In Elizabethan London, according to Jack's Data-Record in Only Human (p.90).]
c. 1590 AD
Trentillys Castle is sold to merchant adventurer Thomas Gosthorpe. The castle will remain in the family for centuries.
[In the Elizabethan period, according to the Doctor in Past Reckoning (Decalog 3) (p. 102).]
r. 1590 AD
Christopher Marlowe is absent from England for a year because he is visiting the Roanoake colony.
[He says this was three years before his faked death in The Empire of Glass (p. 141).]
r. 1593 AD
Christopher Marlowe fakes his death in a duel against Ingram Frizzer. He then leaves England and takes the alias Chigi.
[Marlowe reveals this in The Empire of Glass (p. 139-141), dating this as 'sixteen years' ago. Historically, Marlowe died on 30th May 1593.]
April 1593 AD
English playwright Thomas Kyd is arrested and tried by the privy council for writing atheistic and seditious literature.
[In The Empire of Glass Marlowe and Shakespeare agree this was April of the year Marlowe faked his death, which was 1593.]
r. 13th January 1595 AD
A fleet of Zygon ships is ambushed by a Xaranti attack force. Most of the fleet is destroyed. However, Balaak's ship survives and crashes on Earth.
[Tuval says that they've been on Earth for almost three centuries by 1894 in The Bodysnatchers. (p.155)]
c. 1598 AD
Shakespeare meets with Elizabeth I and discusses his plays.
[As shown on the Time/Space Visualiser in The Chase (ep. 1). Elizabeth refers to having seen a play with Falstaff - probably referring to his first appearance in Henry IV, which was finished in 1598.]
May 1599 AD
The Shakespeare Code
At a performance of Love's Labours Lost, William Shakespeare announces that the following day's performance would be the brand new sequel Love's Labours Won. Later that night, Lynley, Master of the Revels, is struck dead by witchcraft. The next day, Peter Streete - the architect of the Globe Theatre passes away whilst incarcerated in Bedlam. The opening performance of Love's Labour's Won includes a stunning conclusion where, not only do the guys get the girls, but an incredibly realistic cloud of witches appear in the middle of the theatre.
[A caption says that it is 1599, and the Doctor also gives this date. The Globe Theatre has recently opened - suggesting that it is May. In reality Love's Labours Won appears on a list of Shakespeare plays published in 1598.]
Oliver Cromwell is born.
[The year is given in The Roundheads (p. 116).]
est. 1600 AD
The Uvodni join a planetary alliance in a war against the Malakh. They will continue fighting for hundreds of years, even after the rest of the alliance are crushed.
[The message from the Emperor in Warriors of Kudlak (ep. 2, set c. 2008) says that the war has gone on for "centuries". The exact number is entirely arbitrary.]
c. 1600 AD
William Shakespeare sprains his wrist writing sonnets, and the fourth Doctor helps him write out down the script of Hamlet.
[The Doctor recognises his own handwriting on the original manuscript in City of Death (ep. 4), and Shakespeare also mentions this in The Empire of Glass (p. 153). Hamlet was written sometime between 1599 and 1602.]
King James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England. Amongst his retinue is General William Lethbridge-Stewart.
[According to the Brigadier in The Dying Days (p.179).]
c. 1603 AD
The Doctor shared a cell with Sir Walter Raleigh in the Tower of London. Raleigh kept going on about some new vegetable he'd discovered.
[Or so he claimed in The Mind of Evil (ep.5). Raleigh was imprisoned 1603-16. It seems more likely that this was the start of his stay if he's going on about the potato.]
Master Dee (really Jared Khan) had been counsellor to Elizabeth I for 20 years. In 1603 he realised that the Doctor wasn't coming back to visit the queen.
[This is mentioned in Birthright (p.61).]
Francis Pearson writes The Adventures of Macbeth's Head.
est. 1605 AD
William Kemp finds a dead rabbit in his father's barn. The corpse is riddled with maggots.
[According to The Roundheads (p. 5). This happened when he was a “boy”. His age is never given, but his son fought in the Civil War and his daughter appears to be in her late teens or early 20s.]
r. 2nd November 1606 AD
Richard Maynarde is born.
[According to his tombstone In Silver Nemesis (ep. 2) he died aged 51. The exact date of death is given, his date of birth is not.]
c. 1608 AD
Galileo Galilei constructs the first astronomical telescope.
[The Doctor mentions this in The Masque of Mandragora (ep. 4), but dates it to 50 years after that story (which would be about 20 years before Galileo was even born). Galileo actually appears in The Empire of Glass, which is set in the correct time period, and has already invented it, so we have to assume that the Doctor got his dates wrong. In reality, Galileo developed his telescope some time around 1608 or 1609, and we've gone for that date.]
The Empire of Glass
Galileo demonstrated his spyglass to the Doge of Venice. Soon afterwards, he was apparently killed in a duel with Tomasso Nicolotti, but was really replaced by Christopher Marlowe.
Meanwhile, a number of alien races were involved in discussions at the Armageddon Convention. The convention banned extreme weapons such as cobalt bombs and temporal disrupters. It had been arranged by Irving Braxiatel and was chaired by the Doctor. Whilst the Daleks and Cybermen refused to attend, two races attempted to sabotage the event. The Greld, a race of arms dealers, attempted to destroy the conference. The Jamarians, a minor race who were administering the negotiations, attempted to steal the delegates' weapons technology as a bargaining tool and stepping stone to an empire.
Soon afterwards, Shakespeare played Lady MacBeth in the premiere of his Scottish play.
[The year is stated (p. 30). The Armageddon Convention is still in existence by the time of Revenge of the Cybermen (ep. 3) and humanity have signed up to it.]
March 1610 AD
A mob burns all extant copies of Francis Pearson's plays after an exceptionally bad performance.
[Managra (p. 140-141).]
September 1610 AD
Edward Kelley and Francis Pearson meet in Prague. They pay a visit to Elizabeth Bathory.
[Managra (p. 140).]
Elizabeth Bathory is walled up for killing three hundred women and bathing in their blood. She believed that this ritual would rejuvenate her. There are many horrors surrounding her and her castle which are never mentioned at the trial.
[Managra (p. 124).]
Francis Pearson writes the play The Blood Countess of Transylvania.
[Managra (p. 141).]
h. 6th November 1612 AD
Prince Henry, heir to the throne of England, dies unexpectedly. The Duke of Buckingham begins grooming his brother Charles for the throne.
[Charles recalls this in The Roundheads (p. 87). No date is given, so we're using the historical one.]
29th June 1613 AD
Francis Pearson burns down the Globe Theatre during the premier production of Henry VIII and then disappears.
[As seen in the prologue to Managra (p.1). The date is given in a caption.]
r. December 1615 AD
Christopher Whyte is born.
[He is 33 in The Roundheads (p. 31).]
April 1616 AD
The dying Shakespeare gives Irving Braxiatel original manuscripts of his unused plays in return for memories of events in Venice during 1609.
[The Empire of Glass (p. 249)]
c. 1619 AD
Galileo is dismissed by his blinkered scientific contemporaries.
[According to Miss Rivers in The Lost Boy (ep. 1). The nearest match in his real career was probably his dispute with Grassi in 1619.]
Lady Peinforte poisons her neighbour Dorothea Remington.
[She gives the year in Silver Nemesis (ep. 3).]
r. December 1623 AD
Thomas Culpepper is born.
[He is 25 in The Roundheads (p. 48).]
h. 1625 AD
King Charles marries Henrietta Maria. After a difficult start, the marriage becomes solid and loving.
[He recalls this in The Roundheads (p. 87). No date is given.]
h. 1628 AD
King Charles Stuart begins ruling without Parliament.
[He does this for eleven years before he needs money to fight the Scots according to The Roundheads (p. 73 & 88).]
r. December 1628 AD
A plague ravages London.
[According to Oliver Cromwell in The Roundheads (p. 83) this happened twenty years ago.]
r. December 1628 AD
Sal Winter is Captain Stanislaus's lover. They split up and Sal catches the pox, which costs her her nose. She blames Stanislaus for the loss of her nose and begins tracking him for revenge.
[Twenty years before The Roundheads (p. 110 & 226-228).]
John Proctor is born.
[He is said to be about 60 in The Witch Hunters (p. 40, 223) - set in January and July 1692.]
November 1638 AD
The Doctor, Roundheads and Lady Peinforte were involved in the launch of the Nemesis Statue on 23rd November 1638. The statue's orbit came near Earth every 25 years, influencing world events. Lady Peinforte immediately hired a mathematician to calculate the date it would return to Earth. She then killed the mathematician and used his blood to magically transport herself and her servant Richard Maynarde to Windsor on 23rd November 1988 when the statue would return. This time travel was aided by Fenric.
[The year is given in a caption. The Doctor says that the statue was launched on 23rd November 1638 (ep. 1). Fenric's involvement is established in The Curse of Fenric. The term roundheads is anachronistic, since it wasn't really used until the English Civil Wars.]
King Charles recalls Parliament in order to raise money to fight the Scots, who had forced him to raise an army against them. This begins the tensions that lead to the first English Civil War.
[This is mentioned in The Roundheads (p. 73).]
h. 12th May 1641 AD
Parliament is responsible for the beheading of Earl Strafford, a nobleman who had been a loyal servant of King Charles I.
[Charles recalls this n The Roundheads (p. 88). No date is given.]
h. 22nd August 1642 AD
The English Civil War begins between the King and Parliament when Parliament demands that soldiers be under their control rather than the King's.
[Nathaniel Scrope mentions “seven years of slaughter” in The Roundheads (p. 39). The exact date is historical.]
h. 23rd October 1642 AD
Christopher Whyte is wounded at the battle of Edgehill. He continues his Royalist service by becoming a spy in London, and reporting back to his masters in Oxford.
[He recalls this in The Roundheads (p.72).]
13th July 1643 AD
A Royalist and a Roundhead army met in the village of Little Hodcombe. The ensuing battle resulted in the deaths of every soldier and every inhabitant of the village. The psychic energy thus released briefly awakened the Malus. Shortly afterwards the Doctor returned Will Chandler to his native time.
[George Hutchinson gives the date in The Awakening (ep.1)]
1st July 1644 AD
Prince Rupert enters the city of York unopposed.
[The day before the battle of Marston Moor, according to Nightshade (p. 67).]
h. 2nd July 1644 AD
The battle of Marston Moor was fought between Oliver Cromwell, with 27,000 troops, and Prince Rupert, with 20,000. The battle began at 7pm when the Royalist right wing was demolished by the Parliamentary dragoons. Later, when it had re-formed, it was again destroyed, this time by Parliament's Scottish cavalry. Casualties on Parliament's side included Valentine Walton's boy. Amongst the vast casualties amongst the Royalists is a Pikeman called Arthur Kemp.
[According to Nightshade (p. 66-70). Arthur Kemp is mentioned in The Roundheads (p. 69-70).]
c. 1644 AD
The War Lords kidnapped soldiers from both the English Civil War and the Thirty Years War.
[In The War Games there's an English Civil War Zone and the War Chief mentions soldiers from the Thirty Years War (both ep. 8). The English Civil Wars were 1642-1649 and the Thirty Years War 1618-1648. Since more wars are mentioned than there are zones, we can assume that these two were in the same Zone.]
c. 1644 AD
The Master used TOMTIT to kidnap a group of Roundheads to attack a UNIT convoy in 1972.
[As seen in The Time Monster (ep. 3).]
r. 3rd July 1644 AD
Following the battle at Marston Moor, Parliamentarian Captain Phillip Jackson pursued Prince Rupert's horsemen. They found a group of them at the ruins of Marsham Castle, notorious for weird happenings. The Royalists had been terrified by some unusual visions and surrendered themselves. Soon afterwards, the castle was totally destroyed in a mysterious fire.
[According to Nightshade (p. 66 & 70-78), this was the day after the battle.]
h. 14th June 1645 AD
There is a General Lethbridge-Stewart at the battle of Naseby.
[According to the Brigadier in The Dying Days (p. 179). We never learn which side he was on.]
c. 1645 AD
Witches hid from the infamous Witchfinder General Matthew Hopkins in the village of Devils End. They were eventually found and burned at the stake.
[Alistair Fergus mentions the witches hiding in The Dæmons (ep. 1). The Master thinks about their capture and deaths in The Eight Doctors (p.85-86). Hopkins was unofficial Witchfinder General between 1644 and 1647.]
h. 10th January 1645 AD
Parliament is responsible for the beheading of Archbishop Laud.
[Charles I recalls this in The Roundheads (p. 88)]
c. 1646 AD
A roundhead is taken through the Cardiff rift to the early 21st Century.
[As seen in End of Days. The English Civil Wars lasted from 1642 to 1651, and the New Model Army from 1645 to 1660. We've arbitrarily chosen the last year of the first war.]
r. October 1648 AD
Captain Stanislaus begins a series of voyages between England and France.
[He has taken 6 voyages to France in the last two months according to Sal Winter in The Roundheads (p. 148).]
December 1648 AD
The English Army turns away two thirds of Parliament so that the remainder will sanction the trial of the King. On the same day, Oliver Cromwell returns to London. The next day, Cromwell reads out the charges on which the King is to be tried. In Amsterdam, Captain Stanislaus picks up a passenger on the service of the Royal family.
The following day, Charles Stuart is freed from Hurst Castle by his supporters, but chooses to lie low in London. A girl involved in the attempt is imprisoned, as are two friends of hers who were fortune telling for Cromwell. They are freed as a friend of theirs brings news of a new Royalist plot. This plot is thwarted and the King recaptured. The rescue of the King and the assassination attempt are never recorded.
[Nathaniel Scrope mentions seven years of slaughter and the upcoming trial, from which the Doctor calculates that it's "1648, December I should say" (p. 39-40, confirmed p. 43). The first day of the book is when Cromwell returned to London - which happened on the 6th of December, and the book takes place over 5 days.]
20th January 1649 AD
King Charles Stuart stands trial for treason.
[The Doctor gives the date in The Roundheads (p. 204).]
30th January 1649 AD
King Charles Stuart is executed for treason.
[As seen in The Roundheads (p. 281-282). The Doctor mentions the event in passing in The Clockwise Man (p. 89).]
Emily Sawyer, daughter of the Mayor of Cirbury, sneaks out of the village with the Magistrate's son. They are interrupted by five begging mummers. The Magistrate's son is enraged, and cracks one of the mummers' skulls against one of the standing stones. The stone contains the Ragman, who takes control of the corpse, brutally murders the boy, and rapes Emily. The townsfolk hang the mummer's corpse, and it retreats into the stone. The other four mummers were taken to the stone and shot, the stone was then removed and taken far away - to Dartmoor. The men who took it returned insane, and promised that the village has not seen the last of the Ragman. Emily is pregnant, disowned by her family, and her child is raised by the church.
[According to Rags (p. 124-125, 132-142, 156). This century is given (p. 39, 162, 225).]
c. 1653 AD
The Doctor may have fished with Izaak Walton.
[He claims this in The Androids of Tara (ep. 1). Walton lived 1593-1683. We've used the year Walton published The Compleat Angler.]
c. 1656 AD
Oliver Cromwell bans Christmas festivities.
[Polly claims that Cromwell banned Christmas in The Roundheads (p. 34). The ban was actually on secular festivities associated with Christmas rather than on Christmas itself.]
2nd November 1657 AD
Richard Maynarde dies.
[According to his tombstone in Silver Nemesis (ep. 2)]
Oliver Cromwell dies. He is succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard, but within a few scant months Richard's rule ends.
[As mentioned in The Roundheads (p. 116, 145).]
h. 29th May 1660 AD
Parliament invites Charles II to take the throne of England.
[This is mentioned but not dated, in The Roundheads (p. 239).]
The Astronomer Clancy discovers a comet that returns to Earth every 157 years.
[The Ghosts of N-Space (ep. 5 / p. 200).]
c. 1663 AD
John Aubrey invented Druidism "as a joke".
[According to the Doctor in The Stones of Blood (ep.1). Aubrey lived 1626-97. His Monumenta Britannica, which includes his theories about historic Druidism was written 1663-1693.]
The Nemesis Statue came close to Earth. It may have been connected with 1665's Great Plague.
[Silver Nemesis (ep. 2). The effect is suggested in The Terrestrial Index.]
h. June 1665 AD
The Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam is ceded to the British and renamed New York.
[The Doctor mentions that New York used to be called New Amsterdam in Daleks in Manhattan.]
r. 11th August 1666 AD
A Terileptil ship crashes near London. Its occupants are escaped prisoners.
[Richard Mace saw it "a few weeks" before The Visitation. We've arbitrarily suggested that it was 3 weeks.]
h. 1st September 1666 AD
The Doctor stops the Terileptils from wiping out the city of London with a form of the bubonic plague virus. In the process the Terileptil ship explodes, causing the Great Fire of London.
[The story takes place over two days. Not date is given, but from history it's 1st & 2nd September 1666.]
c. September 1666 AD
The Doctor may have been blamed for starting the Great Fire of London.
[He claims this happened to him in 1666 in Pyramids of Mars (ep. 4). He only gives the year.]
c. 1667 AD
The Doctor may have visited diarist Samuel Pepys and his wife. He thought that Mrs Pepys made "an excellent cup of Coffee".
[He claims this in Planet of the Spiders (ep. 2). Peyps lived 1633-1703, he began his diary in 1660, and his wife died in 1669. The exact date is arbitrary.]
r. 11th January 1672 AD
Mary Warren is born.
[She is about 20 in The Witch Hunters (p. 36) (January 1692).]
John Wallace gave a paper on Resonance and Sympathetic Vibration to the Royal Society.
[The Doctor gives the year in The Happiness Patrol (ep. 3).]
r. July 1680 AD
Abigail Williams, niece of William Parris, is born.
[She is slightly more than half of Mary Warren's 20 years old in The Witch Hunters (p. 36).]
c. 1681 AD
Pirate Captain Pike is foiled looking for hidden treasure on the Cornish coast by king's revenue officer Josiah Blake.
[The Doctor dates it as "after the 16th Century" based on church architecture (ep. 1). Josiah Blake is the King's Revenue Officer (ep, 2), so it's 1603-43, 1660-88 or 1694-1700. The costumes suggest the 1680s or 1690s. Pike mentions Morgan, a pirate whose most famous attacks were between 1668 and 1672. We arbitrarily suggest a date in the early 1680s.]
The Gore Crow Hotel is built.
[The year is carved above the fireplace in Battlefield.]
c. 1685 AD
The Doctor meets Isaac Newton. At first, he dropped apples on his head but then explained gravity to him over dinner.
[Or so he claims in The Pirate Planet (ep. 4). Newton lived 1642-1727 and published on gravitation in 1685.]
The Nemesis Statue came close to Earth. It may have influenced the policies of France's sun king.
[Silver Nemesis (ep. 2). The effect is suggested in The Terrestrial Index.]
r. 1691 AD
An Abbey is burnt down in Aix-au-Provence because the nuns were suspected of witchcraft.
[One hundred years before the Doctor and companions were snatched away in The Crystal Bucephalus (p. 155).]
January 1692 AD
The Witch Hunters (January 1692)
The irreligious Chesterton Family from Boston stays for a few days in Salem Village, a society on the brink of breakdown. Whilst they are there, Susan joins in with an illicit fortune telling session.
[The captions date this as 11th - 16th January 1692.]
June 1692 AD
The Witch Hunters (June - July 1692)
The Chestertons return to Salem Village at the height of the infamous Witch Trials. They become involved in an attempt to save Rebecca Nurse. Ian Chesterton is tried for being a witch, whilst Susan Chesterton is taken into the household of Samuel Parris.
[The captions date this as 29th June to 2nd July 1692.]
July 1692 AD
The Witch Hunters (July 1692)
Ian Chesterton organises a mass escape attempt from Salem jail, but none of the prisoners escape. At the same time Susan Chesterton joins the afflicted accusers. Ian Chesterton receives a pardon and Susan Chesterton leaves Reverend Parris's house on the same day, as several "witches" including Rebecca Nurse, hang.
[The captions date this between 2nd July and 19th July 1692.]
14th January 1693 AD
The Witch Hunters (January 1693)
Mary Warren leaves Salem Village, having undermined much of the basis of the Witch Trials.
[The captions date this as 14th Jan 1693.]
c. 1700 AD
Isaac Newton studies the paranormal.
[According to Miss Rivers in The Lost Boy (ep. 1). Newton lived 1643-1727. In real life he wrote a lot about alchemy and the occult, most of these manuscripts were never published. Therefore, the date is arbitrary.]