A History of the Whoniverse

The Renaissance and Scientific Revolution.

"Ah, that Renaissance sunshine. Leonardo? The paintings went down very well. Everybody loved them. Last Supper, Mona Lisa. You remember the Mona Lisa? That dreadful woman with no eyebrows who wouldn't sit still, eh? Your idea for the helicopter took a bit longer to catch on, but as I say, these things take time.
- The Fourth Doctor in City of Death

14th Century

Buriden develops the metaphor of Buriden's Ass. Give a rational donkey two equally large piles of straw and place him the same distance from both of them, and he will starve to death because he can't choose which one to go to first.

[According to the fifth and eighth Doctors in The Eight Doctors (p. 172) this was in the 14th Century. Buriden lived 1300-1358.]

1350 AD

Rudolf de Nuremberg develops a water-powered wire-drawing method.

[The Masque of Mandragora.]

est. 14th Century

A plague victim was taken to the early 21st Century through the Cardiff rift.

[As seen in End of Days. It's not clear when she came from, but Owen suspects she has the black death.]

14th Century

The Dæmons inspire the Renaissance.

[Or so the Doctor claims in The Dæmons.]

1388 AD

Chaucer presents the Doctor with a signed copy of his The Doctour of Science's Tale.

[This is mentioned and dated in Cat's Cradle: Time's Crucible (p. 43). Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales from 1386 - 1400.]

est. 1400 AD

The Daleks

The arrival of four aliens on the planet Skaro prompts the pacifist Thals to attack the Dalek city, trapping the Daleks inside it.

[In The Dalek Invasion of Earth, the Doctor speculates that these events are a million years in the future, though this doesn't fit with any other evidence. In Planet of the Daleks, they are said to be generations ago (and so a considerable time before 2540). In War of the Daleks, this was millennia ago (p. 73), and these were the first Daleks to emerge since Genesis of the Daleks (p.74). This last statement means that this story must be set a long time before The Empire of Glass, when the Daleks are a sufficiently powerful force to be invited to the Armageddon Convention of 1609 (p.134). Within these limits, my date is completely arbitrary.]

h. 25th October 1415 AD

The Reign Makers (Short Trips: Indefinable Magic)

The Doctor seeds the clouds to ensure that it rains at the Battle of Agincourt, as history recorded.

[The date is historical. The Doctor mentions having been at Agincourt in The Masque of Mandragora and Shada (4th Doctor).]

c. 1430 AD

An Aztec priest called Yexata dies and his body is sealed in a tomb.

[The date is Barbara's estimate in The Aztecs (ep. 1).]

r. 1450 AD

The remainder of the Daleks emerge from their confinement, forcing the Thals to leave Skaro.

[According to the Doctor in War of the Daleks (p. 74). This must be sufficiently long after The Daleks for the Thals to understand and replicate some Dalek technology. It must also be sufficiently before The Empire of Glass (1609) for the Daleks to become enough of a space power to be invited to the Armageddon Convention and noted as a power by the delegates. I arbitrarily suggest this is 50 years after The Daleks, and that the Daleks begin building a space empire very shortly afterwards.]

15th Century

Fascination (Decalog)

The fifth Doctor and Peri visit the remote village of Sair, whose inhabitants are into demonology.

[It's the fifteenth century (p.216).]

15th Century

The earliest parts of Fulbright Hall, Dartmoor were built by William Fulbright.

[In the 15th Century, according to Evolution (p.7-8).]

1452 AD

Leonardo Da Vinci is born.

[The year is given by the tour guide in City of Death (ep.1).]

h. 29th May 1453 AD

Constantinople is renamed Istanbul.

[Shadowmind (p. 32). No date is given other than the 15th century, so we're using the historical date.]

c. 1454 AD

One of Scaroth's segments acquires a Gutenberg Bible and a Ming vase.

[City of Death. Gutenberg bibles were printed between 1453 and 1455 and the Ming dynasty ruled from 1368 to 1644, so these were likely acquired by the same segment.]

c. 1454 AD

The Aztecs

Four pale-skinned people come out of the tomb of Yexata. One of them is proclaimed to be the divine reincarnation of Yexata, the others are her handmaiden and two male servants. One of the men becomes commander of the army whilst the other retires to the Garden of Peace. The goddess objects to the practice of human sacrifice, and persuades the High Priest of Knowledge to question the practice, enough to go into the wilderness. The goddess disappeared at the solar eclipse, leaving the High Priest of Sacrifice in control of the religious order.

[There is little indication how long after Yexata's death (dated c. 1430) this occurs. Ixta's father built the tomb and Ixta appears to be in his 20s, with Cameca having been close to Ixta's father, but this doesn't really allow us to pin down the date. In The Left-Handed Hummingbird (p.66), Benny guesses this happened during the drought of 1454, which tallies with this information.]

c. 1470 AD

The earliest parts of Chase Mansion were built during the Wars of the Roses.

[The Seeds of Doom. The Wars of the Roses happened between 1455 and 1485.]

1480 AD

Johann Faust of Wittenberg was born.

[His reprise gives the year in Managra (p.193).]

1487 AD

The Left-Handed Hummingbird

In Tenochtitlan, the Aztec god Huitzilopochtli was demanding 20,000 sacrifices in one day after years of steady increase. These sacrifices, together with the Exxilon artefact known as the Xiuhcoatl, allowed a psychic called Huitzilin to spend the subsequent centuries visiting violent moments in history and making them worse. Huitzilin would later become known as the Blue.

[The year is established in a caption (p.39).]

r. 16th September 1491 AD

The Doctor had a steely encounter with Tomas de Torqemada in Toledo.

[The Doctor mentions this in Managra, (p. 52, 56), which places it seven years before Torquemada's death. The fact that he recognises Torquemada's face makes it unlikely this is just a name-drop. This is likely the same trip remembered by Steven in The Empire of Glass (p. 60), where the TARDIS crew spent a few days in Toledo during the time of Torquemada.]

1492 AD

The Masque of Mandragora

In the Italian Dukedom of San Marino, the cult of Demnos, who were thought to have died out in the 3rd century, attempt to kill the Duke. They are defeated by two strangers.

[Da Vinci's patron is the Duke of Milan (so it's 1482-93). The novelisation begins by saying that it's 1492.]

1492 AD

Christopher Columbus "discovers" the Americas

[This is mentioned in Eye of Heaven (p.41), and The Ghosts of N-Space (p.71, novel only).]

h. 1492 AD

The Moors were finally expelled from Spain by Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille. Guido, son of the Barone of San Stefano Minore, was presumed killed in the battle for Grenada.

[The Ghosts of N-Space (p.71, 138/ep.2 & 4)]

c. 1493 AD

Mortimus discusses plans for a flying machine with Leonardo Da Vinci.

[The Time Meddler. The date is when Da Vinci is first believed to have drawn plans for a flying machine. Mortimus's name was first established in No Future.]

h. 16th September 1498 AD

Torqemada dies in Avila. The Doctor was there at the time.

[The Doctor mentions this in Managra (p.52,56). Whilst this visit is not confirmed, the fact that he recognises Torquemada's face and that there is other evidence for his previous meeting with Torquemada (in The Empire of Glass) strongly suggests that this is not a name-drop. The date of his death is historical.]

est. 1500 AD

The term astronomy is coined to distinguish scientific study of the stars from the interminable mumbo-jumbo of astrology

[This is mentioned in Short Trips: Zodiac (p.1), and said to be "the second millennium of the Christian Era." The date is arbitrary. In reality the word astronomy in English predates astrology by a couple of centuries. The two terms diverged in meaning between the late 1400s and the late 1600s.]

1503 AD

Leonardo Da Vinci finishes the original Mona Lisa.

[The year is given by both the Doctor and a TV news reporter City of Death (ep.3)]

1504 AD

The Ghosts of N-Space

Two alchemists visited the Barone of San Stefano Minore. One of these alchemists, the Doctor, was thrown into the dungeons for necromancy, but he escaped. The other, Maximilian Vilmio, was walled up alive whilst attempting to perform a magical ceremony.

[The date is given. (p.220 / ep.5)]

1505 AD

City of Death

Count Tancredi, the ninth splinter of Scaroth, forces Da Vinci to paint 6 copies of the Mona Lisa. The copies are, however, ruined by the fourth Doctor, who adds a message to the canvas labelling them as fakes.

[Tancredi asks the Doctor what he is doing in 1505 (ep.3).]

1519 AD

Leonardo da Vinci dies

[The tour guide gives the year in City of Death (ep.1). The historical date was 2nd May.]

c. 1520 AD

Hernando Cortéz lands in the Americas with 600 Spaniards. His arrival co-incides with the Aztec year of One Reed, when the god Quetzalcoatl was prophesied to return. His actions almost wipe out the Aztecs.

[Barbara mentions his arrival in The Aztecs, giving the year 1520. Benny gives more details, and the year 1519, in The Left-Handed Hummingbird (p.64,66). In reality, he arrived in 1519, and his conquest happened between 1519 and 1520.]

c. 1525 AD

The First Doctor and Susan meet Henry VIII, who puts them in the Tower of London after the Doctor throws a parson's nose at him. This allows them to get back to the TARDIS.

[The Doctor mentions this in The Sensorites (ep.1). Since Susan is in this scene, we can probably assume it isn't simply a name-drop. The date is not specified, but Henry reigned from 1509 to 1547.]

h. 19th May 1536 AD

Anne Boleyn is beheaded. She requests that it be done by sword rather than axe.

[According to a plaque in The Dying Days (p.265).]

c. 1538 AD

Henry VIII orders the dissolution of a large number of religious houses. One victim is the Convent of the Little Sisters of St. Gudula.

[According to Professor Rumford in The Stones of Blood (ep.2). The dissolution of the monasteries took place between 1536 and 1541.]

1540 AD

Johann Faust of Wittenberg dies.

[His reprise gives the year in Managra (p.193).]

1540 AD

A shooting star falls to earth near the Torchwood estate in Scotland. It contains a lupine wavelength haemoveriform (alien werewolf) which will infect a local human.

[The year is recorded in a book seen in Tooth and Claw, which also says that this is during the reign of James V (1513-1542).]

h. 25th August 1540 AD

Katherine Grey is born.

[She is 12 years old when she and Jane are married off in The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2). As this is consistent with her historical birth date, we have gone with that.]

c. Late 16th Century

Priests from around the country hid from persecution in Cranleigh Hall.

[This is mentioned by Lady Craneleigh in Black Orchid (ep. 2), but no date is given. Priestholes were most widely used during the reign of Elizabeth I and James I/VI.]

r. 7th May 1553 AD

The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)

The Duke of Northumberland catches three strangers in Bradgate as Jane Grey shoots a wolf. Jane identifies one of them as her tutor, Doctor Samuel Smythe. During these events, an alien called the Vrij possesses the Duke.

[This is a few weeks before Jane's wedding (p.200) and two months before Edward dies (p.205). We've calculated from the latter.]

h. 25th May 1553 AD

The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)

Lady Jane Grey is forced to marry Gilford, son of the Duke of Northumberland. During the ceremony she refuses to say her vows, before suddenly agreeing. At the same ceremony Jane's two sisters are also married. Following this, her tutor is given a small townhouse in the parish of St Mary;s Islington and a lump sum of money.

[We have used the historical date, which is not contradicted anywhere in the story. It's a few weeks since the TARDIS arrived (p.200).]

7th July 1553 AD

The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)

The day after King Edward dies rumours of all sorts of supernatural events begin to circulate.

[Barbara calculates that it's 7th July (p.205). It's also about two months after they arrived.]

h. 10th July 1553 AD

The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)

Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England at the Tower of London. Shortly afterwards, there is a confrontation between Jane and the Duke of Northumberland when Jane refuses to say that her husband is the king.

[No date is given, so we've gone with history.]

h. 19th July 1553 AD

The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)

After a few days where the Vrij inside the Duke of Northumberland creates more support for Jane Grey than was recorded in the history books it is removed by the Doctor. Later that day soldiers loyal to Mary arrest Jane Grey.

[No date is stated, so we've gone with history.]

c. 1554 AD

Madame Nostradamus knits an absurdly long scarf for the Doctor.

[Or so the Doctor claims in The Ark in Space. Nostradamus lived from 1503-1566 and published his prophecies in 1555. His marriage lasted between 1531-1534, and his second marriage was in 1547. Arbitrarily dated the year before Nostradamus's book.]

r. 19th October 1554 AD

The Nine-Day Queen (Decalog 2)

Jane Grey is executed. She asks the crowd to join her in prayer, and after being blindfolded she stumbles. An elderly onlooker emerges from the crowd and helps her guide her hands to the block before disappearing.

[This is fifteen months after her arrest (p.226). Historically her execution was 12th February 1554, which was only seven months later.]

h. 15th January 1559 AD

The Doctor attends Elizabeth I's coronation. The banquet is spoiled when Essex throws drumsticks around.

[He claims to have been there in The Curse of Peladon (ep.4), Cat's Cradle: Witch Mark, and Nightshade. Essex's behaviour is from Witch Mark.]

h. April 1564 AD

William Shakespeare is born.

[He is 49 in the prologue to Managra (p.2, set 29th June 1613). Since his real birth was around April 1564 (he was christened on 26th April) and is consistent with this, we have opted to use the historical date.]

1572 AD

Boscombe Hall was built on the site of the Convent of the Little Sisters of St Gudula.

[According to Professor Rumford in The Stones of Blood (ep. 2). The house is never actually named onscreen.]

h. August 1572 AD

The Massacre

In Paris the authorities execute the staunchly catholic Abbot of Amboise for failure to assassinate the prominent Huguenot Admiral de Coligny. Soon afterwards, the Medicis launch a full scale massacre of the Huguenots. It is possible that servant girl Anne Chaplet survives the massacre.

[Anne says it is 1572 (ep. 4). Matching up with real-world history puts this between 9th & 23rd August.]

1582 AD

The seventh Doctor and Ace visit Rome in search of the Timewyrm.

[According to Timewyrm: Revelation (p. 13).]

c. 1584 AD

Elizabeth I's Astrologer John Dee, his assistant Edward Kelly, and their wives meet King of Poland Stephen Bathory whilst on a tour of Europe.

[Byron and Sarah discuss this in Managra (p.139). Sarah says it was the 1580s. Bathory died in 1586, so we've dated this a couple of years before then.]

1587 AD

Sir Bothwell Chase completes the west wing of Chase Mansion just before his execution.

[According to Harrison Chase in The Seeds of Doom (ep. 3).]

1587 AD

The Greld attack the Roanoake colony in America. They implant sections of a meta-cobalt bomb and hypnotic controllers into the colonists.

[As seen in The Empire of Glass (p.1).]

h. 1588 AD

The Doctor met Francis Drake before he left to face the Spanish Armada. He lets Drake win the game of bowls so he can get off quickly.

[The Doctor mentions this In Four to Doomsday (ep.2). More details are given in Birthright (p.62-63), where the Doctor (apparently the seventh) and Queen Elizabeth recall events. It's possible that the first mention was merely a name-drop.]

1589 AD

John Dee returns to England from his European tour. Edward Kelley continues touring, earning a living as a scryer and an alchemist.

[According to the Doctor in Managra (p.140).]

c. 1590 AD

A girl at a party makes a mistake with Captain Jack.

[In Elizabethan London, according to Jack's Data-Record in Only Human (p.90).]

c. 1590 AD

Trentillys Castle is sold to merchant adventurer Thomas Gosthorpe. The castle will remain in the family for centuries.

[In the Elizabethan period, according to the Doctor in Past Reckoning (Decalog 3) (p. 102).]

1593

Christopher Marlowe, a survivor of Roanoake, is presumed killed during a duel. He actually survives and a hypnotic control is (unknowingly) removed from his head.

[The Empire of Glass.]

? 1590s

The alien Dobtcheff travels back over 800 years, and plants himself into an unborn human child.

[This is an unknown number of generations before Short Trips and Side Steps: Reunion.]

1590s

Mr Chadwick and Gregario join Joanna Harris' vampire coven.

[Around 400 years before Vampire Science page 150.]

1590s

A fleet of Zygon ships is ambushed by a Xaranti attack force. Most of the fleet is destroyed. However, Balaak's ship survives and crashes on Earth.

[Tuval says that they've been on Earth for almost three centuries by 1894 on page 155 of The Bodysnatchers.]

1598

Shakespeare meets with Elizabeth I and discusses his plays

[As shown on the Time/Space Visualiser in The Chase. Elizabeth refers to having seen a play with Falstaff - probably referring to his first appearance in Henry IV, which was finished in 1598.]

1599

Oliver Cromwell is born

[According to The Roundheads page 116.]

May 1599

THE SHAKESPEARE CODE

At a performance of Love's Labours Lost, William Shakespeare announces that the following day's performance would be the brand new sequel Love's Labours Won. Later that night, Lynley, Master of the Revels, is struck dead by witchcraft. The next day, Peter Streete - the architect of the Globe Theatre passes away whilst incarcerated in Bedlam. Later, the performance of Love's Labour's Won includes a stunning conclusion where, not only do the guys get the girls, but an incredibly realistic cloud of witches appear in the middle of the theatre.

[A caption says that it is 1599, and the Doctor also gives this date. The Globe Theatre has recently opened - suggesting that it is May.. On the other hand, Love's Labours Won actually appears on a list of Shakespeare plays published in 1598.]

1603

The Doctor shares a cell with Sir Walter Raleigh in the Tower of London. Raleigh keeps going on about some new vegetable he's discovered.

[The Mind of Evil. Raleigh was imprisoned 1603-16. It seems more likely that this was the start of his stay if he's going on about the potato.]

1603

Master Dee (really Jared Khan) had been counsellor to Elizabeth I for 20 years. In 1603 he realised that the Doctor wasn't coming back to visit the queen.

[Birthright.]

1603

Francis Pearson writes The Adventures of Macbeth's Head.]

[Managra.]

1603

King James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England. Amongst his retinue is General William Lethbridge-Stewart.

[According to the Brigadier in The Dying Days. The Act of Union is mentioned in The Roundheads (page 9).]

? 1605

William Kemp finds a dead rabbit in his father's barn. The corpse is riddled with maggots.

[According to The Roundheads page 5. This happened "when he was a boy". His age is never given, but his son was in the Civil War army, and his daughter appears to be in her late teens or early 20s.]

1607

Richard Maynarde was born.

[Silver Nemesis.]

1608

Galileo Galilei constructs the first astronomical telescope.

[The Masque of Mandragora. This must have been before The Empire of Glass.]

1609

THE EMPIRE OF GLASS

Galileo demonstrated his spyglass to the Doge of Venice. Soon afterwards, he was apparently killed in a duel with Tomasso Nicolotti, but was really replaced by Christopher Marlowe. Meanwhile, a number of alien races were involved in discussions at the Armageddon Convention. The convention banned extreme weapons such as cobalt bombs and temporal disrupters. It had been arranged by Irving Braxiatel
and was chaired by the Doctor. Whilst the Daleks and Cybermen refused to attend, two races attempted to sabotage the event. The Greld, a race of arms dealers, attempted to destroy the conference. The Jamarians, a minor race administering it, attempted to steal the delegates' weapons technology as a bargaining tool and stepping stone to an empire. By this point, the fourth Doctor had helped write Hamlet.

Soon afterwards, Shakespeare plays Lady MacBeth in the premiere of his Scottish play.

[The date is on page 30. Somehow, the convention is still in existence (and adhered to by humanity) by the time of Revenge of the Cybermen.]

March 1610

A mob burns all extant copies of Francis Pearson's plays after an exceptionally bad performance.

[Managra.]

September 1610

Edward Kelly and Francis Pearson meet in Prague. They pay a visit to Elizabeth Bathory.

[Managra.]

1611

Elizabeth Bathory is walled up for killing three hundred women and bathing in their blood. She believed that this ritual would rejuvenate her. There are many horrors surrounding her and her castle which are never mentioned at the trial.

[Managra.]

1612

Pearson writes The Blood Countess of Transylvania.]

[Managra.]

6th November 1612

Prince Henry, heir to the throne, dies unexpectedly. The Duke of Buckingham begins grooming his brother Charles for the throne.

[According to The Roundheads page 87. The date is historical.]

29th June 1613

Pearson burns down the Globe Theatre during the premier production of Henry VIII and then disappears.

[Managra.]

1615

Christopher Whyte is born.

[He is 33 in The Roundheads (page 31).]

April 1616

The dying Shakespeare gives Irving Braxiatel original manuscripts of his unused plays in return for memories of events in Venice during 1609.

[The Empire of Glass.]

1621

Lady Peinforte poisoned her neighbour Dorothea Remington.

[Silver Nemesis.]

1623

Thomas Culpepper is born.

[He is 25 in The Roundheads (page 48).]

1625

King Charles marries Henrietta Maria. After a difficult start, the marriage becomes solid and loving.

[This is mentioned in The Roundheads (page 87). The date is historical.]

1626

Richard Cromwell is born.

[He is said to be in his 20s during The Roundheads. The actual year is historical.]

1628

King Charles Stuart begins ruling without Parliament.

[He does this for eleven years before he needs money to fight the Scots according to The Roundheads pages 73 and 88.]

1628

A plague ravages London

[According to Oliver Cromwell in The Roundheads (page 83) this happened twenty years ago.]

1628

Sal Winter is Captain Stanislaus's lover. They split up and Sal catches the pox, which costs her her nose. She blames Stanislaus for the loss of her nose, and begins tracking him for revenge.

[Twenty years before The Roundheads (pages 110 and 226-228).]

1630

The Second Doctor, in one of a number of visits made during his first two incarnations, helped the Det Sen Monastery in Tibet to defend itself against bandits. He was given the monk's holy Ghanta for safekeeping. He may have learnt Tibetan and Tibetan meditation techniques here. [I suspect that he learnt Tibetan and some of the techniques from the Hermit (K'Anpo) on Gallifrey].

[The Abominable Snowmen.]

c. 1632

John Proctor is born.

[He is about 60 on The Witch Hunters pages 40 (January 1692) & 223 (July 1692).]

November 1638

SILVER NEMESIS

The Doctor, Roundheads and Lady Peinforte were involved in the launch of the Nemesis Statue on 23rd November 1638. [Although the term Roundhead isn't supposed to have been used until the civil war, it is possible that there were similarly dressed soldiers referred to by that name beforehand.] The statue's orbit came near Earth every 25 years, influencing world events. Lady Peinforte immediately hired a mathematician to calculate the date it would return to Earth. She then killed the mathematician and used his blood to magically transport herself and her servant Richard Maynarde to Windsor on 23rd November 1988 when the statue would return. This time travel was aided by Fenric (Whose involvement was established in The Curse Of Fenric).]

1639

King Charles recalls Parliament in order to raise money to fight the Scots, who had forced him to raise an army against them. This begins the tensions that lead to the first English Civil War

[This is mentioned in The Roundheads (page 73).]

12 May 1641

Parliament is responsible for the beheading of Earl Strafford, a loyal servant of the King.

[This is mentioned in The Roundheads (page 88). The date is historical.]

The Civil War

22nd August 1642

The English Civil War begins between the King and Parliament when Parliament demands that soldiers be under their control rather than the King's.

[Nathaniel Scrope mentions " seven years of slaughter"' in The Roundheads (page 39). The exact date is historical.]

23rd October 1642

Christopher Whyte is wounded at the battle of Edgehill. He continues his Royalist service by becoming a spy in London, and reporting back to his masters in Oxford.

[According to The Roundheads page 72. The date is historical.]

13th July 1643

A Royalist and a Roundhead army met in the village of Little Hodcombe. The ensuing battle resulted in the deaths of every soldier and every inhabitant of the village. The psychic energy thus released briefly awakened the Malus. Shortly afterwards the Doctor returned Will Chandler to his native time.

[The Awakening.]

1st July 1644

Prince Rupert enters the city of York unopposed.

[The day before the battle of Marston Moor, according to Nightshade page 67.]

2nd July 1644

The battle of Marston Moor was fought between Oliver Cromwell, with 27,000 troops, and Prince Rupert, with 20,000. The battle began at 7 pm, when the Royalist right wing was demolished by the Parliamentary dragoons. Later, when it had re-formed, it was again destroyed, this time by Parliament's Scottish cavalry. Casualties on Parliament's side included Valentine Walton's boy. Amongst the vast casualties amongst the Royalists is a Pikeman called Arthur Kemp.

[According to Nightshade pages 66-70. Arthur Kemp is mentioned in The Roundheads pages 69-70. The date is historical.]

3rd July 1644

Following the battle at Marston Moor, Parliamentarian Captain Phillip Jackson pursued Prince Rupert's horsemen. They found a group of them at the ruins of Marsham Castle, notorious for weird happenings. The Royalists had been terrified by some unusual visions and surrendered themselves. Soon afterwards, the castle was totally destroyed in a mysterious fire.

[According to Nightshade page 66 and pages 70-78, this was clearly the day after the battle.]

c. 1644

The War Lords kidnapped soldiers from both the English Civil War and the Thirty Years War.

[The War Games. Historically, the English Civil War took place 1642-1649 and the 30 Years War was 1618-1648. I suggest that these two groups were kidnapped from the same year, and maybe were even in the same zone - easing the problem that the number of zones doesn't add up.]

c. 1644

The Master also kidnapped a group of Roundheads using TOMTIT to attack a UNIT convoy in 1972.

[The Time Monster.]

1644

Witches hid from the infamous Witchfinder General Matthew Hopkins in the village of Devils End.

[The Dæmons. Hopkins died in 1647. The exact date is arbitrary.]

1645

10th January 1645

Parliament is responsible for the beheading of Archbishop Laud.

[This is mentioned in The Roundheads (page 88). The date is historical.]

The Doctor was one of the founder members of the Royal Geographical Society.

[Ghost Light.]

14th June 1645

There is a General Lethbridge-Stewart at the battle of Naseby.

[According to the Brigadier in The Dying Days chapter 10. We never learn which side he was on. The date is historical.]

Matthew Hopkins, witchfinder general, finds and burns a coven of witches in Devil's End.

[This is mentioned in The Eight Doctors page 85-86. In The Dæmons, some witches are said to have hid from Hopkins in Devil's End.]

In Tír Na n-Óg, the humans make peace with all the other intelligent races.

[This is mentioned in Cat's Cradle: Witch Mark pages 84, 93-94 ("centuries" before 1992), and page 169 ("more than three centuries" before 1992).]

October 1648

Captain Stanislaus begins sailing to France.

[He has taken 6 voyages to France in the last two months according to Sal Winter in The Roundheads (page 148).]

6th-10th December 1648

THE ROUNDHEADS

The English Army prevents turns away two thirds of Parliament so that the remainder will sanction the trial of the King. On the same day, Oliver Cromwell returns to London. The next day, Cromwell reads out the charges on which the King is to be tried. In Amsterdam, Captain Stanislaus picks up a passenger on the service of the Royal family.

The following day, Charles Stuart is freed from Hurst Castle by his supporters, but chooses to lie low in London. A girl involved in the attempt is imprisoned, as are two friends of hers who were fortune telling for Cromwell. They are freed as a friend of theirs brings news of a new Royalist plot. This plot is thwarted and the King recaptured. The rescue of the King and the assassination attempt are never recorded.

[Nathaniel Scrope mentions seven years of slaughter and the upcoming trial, from which the Doctor calculates that it's "1648, December I should say" (pages 39-40). The date is confirmed on page 43. Richard Cromwell is in his 20s on page 77, making it 1646-1656. The first day of the book is when Cromwell returned to London - which happened on the 6th of December. The book takes place over a period of 5 days.]

20th January 1649

King Charles Stuart stands trial for treason.

[According to the Doctor in The Roundheads (page 204).]

30th January 1649

King Charles Stuart is executed for treason.

[This is the final section of The Roundheads (pages 281-282). The Doctor mentions the event in passing in The Clockwise Man, page 89.]

17th Century

Oliver Cromwell bans Christmas festivities.

[Polly claims that Cromwell banned Christmas on page 34 of The Roundheads. The ban was actually on secular festivities associated with Christmas rather than on Christmas itself.]

1653

The Doctor fished with Izaak Walton.

[The Androids of Tara. Walton lived 1593-1683. The date is arbitrarily the publication date of The Compleat Angler.]

2nd November 1657

Richard Maynarde dies.

[Silver Nemesis.]

1658

Oliver Cromwell dies. He is succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard, but within a few scant months, Richard's rule ends.

[Cromwell's death is dated in The Roundheads, page 116. His son's rule is mentioned on page 145.]

17th Century

Emily Sawyer, daughter of the Mayor of Cirbury, sneaks out of the village with the Magistrate's son. They are interrupted by five begging mummers. The Magistrate's son is enraged, and cracks one of the mummers' skulls against one of the standing stones. The stone contains the Ragman, who takes control of the corpse, brutally murders the boy, and rapes Emily. The townsfolk hang the mummer's corpse, and it retreats into the stone. The other four mummers were taken to the stone and shot, the stone was then removed and taken far away - to Dartmoor. The men who took it returned insane, and promised that the village has not seen the last of the Ragman. Emily is pregnant, disowned by her family, and her child is raised by the church.

[According to Rags pages 124-125, 132-142, and 156. This is said to be the seventeenth century on pages 39, 162, and 225.]

1660

Parliament invites Charles II to take the throne of England.

[This is mentioned in The Roundheads, page 239, but no date is given.]

Date Unknown

John Aubrey invented Druidism "as a joke".

[According to the Doctor in The Stones Of Blood. Aubrey lived 1626-97.]

17th Century

The lake at Trentillys Castle was constructed at this time.

[Decalog 3: Past Reckoning.]

1661

The Astronomer Clancey discovers a comet that returns to Earth every 157 years.

[The Ghosts of N-Space.]

1663

The Nemesis Statue came close to Earth. It may have been connected with 1665's Great Plague.

[Silver Nemesis. The effect is suggested in The Terrestrial Index.]

5 August 1666

A Terileptil ship crashes near London. Its occupants are escaped prisoners.

1-2 September 1666

THE VISITATION

The Doctor stops the Terileptils from wiping out the city of London with a form of the bubonic plague virus. In the process the Terileptil ship explodes, causing the Great Fire of London.

[The date is historical.]

1666

One of the buildings destroyed in the fire was the houses of Parliament.

[In The Roundheads (page 41), Polly mentions that the old buildings burnt down - a reference to the Great Fire of London.]

1666

On a visit to this time period, the Doctor had been blamed for causing the fire.

[Pyramids of Mars.]

1667

The Doctor visited diarist Samuel Pepys and his wife. He thought that Mrs Pepys made "an excellent cup of Coffee".

[Robot and Planet of the Spiders respectively. Peyps lived 1633-1703. He began his diary in 1660. His wife died in 1669. The exact date is arbitrary.]

c. 1671

Mary Warren is born.

[She is about 20 in The Witch Hunters page 36 (January 1692).]

1674

The Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam is ceded to the British and renamed New York.

[The Doctor mentions that New York used to be called New Amsterdam in Daleks in Manhattan.]

1677

John Wallace gave a paper on Sympathetic Vibration to the Royal Society.

[The Happiness Patrol.]

c. 1680

The Time Lord Salyavin, posing as "Professor Chronotis" retired to St. Cedds college Cambridge.

[300 years before Shada.]

c. 1681

Abigail Williams, niece of William Parris, is born.

[She is slightly more than half of Mary Warren's 20 years old in The Witch Hunters page 36.]

1684

The Gore Crow Hotel is built.

[Battlefield.]

17th Century

The Doctor met Isaac Newton. At first, he dropped apples on his head but then explained gravity to him over dinner.

[The Pirate Planet. Newton lived 1642-1727 and published on gravitation in 1685. This was probably the second or fourth Doctor.]

1686

THE SMUGGLERS

Pirate Captain Pike is foiled looking for hidden treasure on the Cornish coast by king's revenue officer Josiah Blake.

[According to the Doctor, the church architecture means it's any time after the 16th century and the clothes are 17th century. The presence of the King's Revenue Officer places it between 1603-42, 1660-88 or 1694-1700. The costumes suggest the 1680s or 1690s. The exact date is arbitrary.]

1688

The Nemesis Statue came close to Earth. It may have influenced the policies of France's sun king.

[Silver Nemesis. The effect is suggested in The Terrestrial Index.]

1691

An Abbey is burnt down in Aix-au-Provence because the nuns were suspected of witchcraft.

[One hundred years before the Doctor and companions were snatched away in The Crystal Bucephalus.]

11-16 January 1692

THE WITCH HUNTERS

The irreligious Chesterton Family from Boston stays for a few days in Salem Village, a society on the brink of breakdown. Whilst they are there, Susan joins in with an illicit fortune telling session.

29 June-2 July 1692

THE WITCH HUNTERS

The Chestertons return to Salem Village at the height of the infamous Witch Trials. They become involved in an attempt to save Rebecca Nurse. Ian Chesterton is tried for being a witch, whilst Susan Chesterton is taken into the household of Samuel Parris.

2-19 July 1692

THE WITCH HUNTERS

Ian Chesterton organises a mass escape attempt from Salem jail, but none of the prisoners escape. At the same time, Susan Chesterton joins the afflicted accusers. Ian Chesterton receives a pardon, and Susan Chesterton leaves Reverend Parris's house on the same day, as several "witches," including Rebecca Nurse, hang.

[The book is divided into dated sections.]

19 August 1692

John Proctor is hanged for witchcraft, though his pregnant wife had been given a reprieve.

[According to The Witch Hunters page 264.]

14th January 1693

THE WITCH HUNTERS

Mary Warren leaves Salem Village, having undermined much of the basis of the Witch Trials.

[The date is given on page 273.]

c. 1700

The city of Excelis on the planet Artaris creates the office of Reeve.

[The curator says that this was about 300 years before Excelis Rising.]

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